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REVISTA DE CIENCIA POLГЌTICA / VOLUMEN 29/ NВ° 1 / 2009 / 23 – 55

The Employment Of Government-Initiated Referendums in Latin America. Towards a Theory of Referendum Causes

El uso de los referendos de iniciativa gubernamental en AmГ©rica Latina. Hacia una teorГ­a las that are sobre del uso de votaciones populares iniciadas por el gobierno

ANITA BREUER

Department of Comparative Politics, University of Cologne

Within the last two years there’s been a large boost in how many referendums global. The literature that is existing direct democracy has thus far neglected to explain this trend by delivering a regular theory in the factors that cause referendums. This study that is explorative at undertaking actions toward closing this space by centering on the precise variety of facultative government-initiated referendums (FGIR) and their used in presidential systems. Using QC A (a case-sensitive technique based in the formal logic of Boolean algebra), this research methodically compares the governmental possibility structures of 49 presidential systems from 12 Latin American nations to identify the factors that spurred or obstructed the event of FGIR. It concludes that FGIR are closely associated with high quantities of celebration system fragmentation and split federal federal government, for example. two factors that have for ages been considered problematic when you look at the context of presidential systems, while their obstruction is principally owed into the certain constitutional conditions regulating the referendum device.

Keywords: Referendums, Latin America, Fragmentation, Direct Democracy.

RESUMEN

En las Гєltimas dos dГ©cadas Ma existido alrededor del mundo un considerable aumento en el nГєmero de votaciones populares. No na sabido explicar el fenГіmeno mediante una teorГ­a consistente de las causas de los referendums sin embargo, la literatura existente sobre democracia directa. Este estudio exploratorio busca paso that is dar un para cerrar esta brecha, enfocГЎndose en los referendum facultativos iniciados por poderes polГ­ticos formales (facultative government-initiated referendums – FGIR) y su uso en los sistemas presidenciales. Utilizando OCA (tГ©cnica basada en lГіgica formal de ГЎlgebra booleanas), este estudio hace una comparaciГіn sistemГЎtica de la estructura de oportunidades polГ­ticas de 49 sistemas presidenciales de 12 paГ­ses de AmГ©rica Latina, para detectar los factores estimulan that is que obstruyen la ocurrencia de FGIR. Se concluye que los FGIR estГЎn fuertemente ligados a altos niveles de fragmentaciГіn partidaria y gobiernos divididos, 2 factores que han sido problemГЎticos en los contextos de sistemas presidenciales. Por su parte, la obstrucciГіn se tiene que principalmente a provisiones constitucionales especГ­ficas que regulan los dispositivos de las votaciones populares iniciadas por el gobierno.

Palabras Clave: Plebiscito, AmГ©rica Latina, fragmentaciГіn, democracia directa.

I. INTRODUCTION 1

From the 1960s onwards, different countries around the globe embraced the notion of direct democracy and within the last two decades, the request of direct democratic instruments has grown dramatically (LeDuc, 2003). 2 This trend has attracted scholarly attention and over the past few years, considerable research investigating direct https://onlinedatingsingles.net/kik-review/ democracy happens to be published in distinguished journals in neuro-scientific governmental technology. Up to now this literary works has primarily dedicated to the 2 nations that many often utilize referendums, Switzerland additionally the united states of america in the continuing state degree (Ladner and Brandle, 1999; Gerber, 1996; Papadopulos, 2001; Tolbert and Hero, 1996; Vatter and Freitag, 2006), while an inferior quantity of publications have dedicated to the revolution of referendums entailed in the act of European integration (Hug and Sciarini, 2000; Franklin et ah, 1995). These magazines have actually significantly added to the knowledge in connection with effect of referendums on politics as well as on diverse societal aspects. But, they will have perhaps not yet produced a theory that is consistent the factors that cause referendums. The aim of this paper is always to undertake initial actions towards bridging this space.

Up To an extent that is large the ‘boom’ in direct democracy could be credited toward the increased quantity of citizen-initiated referendums and, to an inferior level, mandatory referendums (Morel, 2001) This development happens to be welcomed by advocates of direct democracy whom stress the potential of those tools to foster bottom-up involvement and straight accountability (Barber, 1984; Schmitter, 2000). Nonetheless, on a few occasions, non-mandatory referendums on important political concerns happen initiated by governing bodies in other words. legislatures or executives. Such government-initiated referendums, which are often known as plebiscites, 3 a phrase that holds a small connotation that is negative largely retain control of governmental decision-making in the hands of elected officials.

Despite adding small to the general upsurge in direct democracy, the event of facultative government-initiated referendums (FGIR) 4 poses a theoretical puzzle (Rahat, 2007).

Even though it is understandable that residents will be involved in processes of decision-making when because of the directly to do this, political elites’ utilization of direct democratic instruments is harder to grasp. What motivates regulating authorities to initiate referendums? Why should democratically legitimised representatives voluntarily provide up their monopoly to legislate, redistribute energy downwards, equal themselves with ordinary residents in governmental decision-making, and finally expose on their own into the threat of losing in the ballot package? The main purpose of this explorative research is to deliver possible responses to those concerns.

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